The space selectivity of the hadrontherapy asks for a new approach to the delivered dose monitoring. The uncertainty on the position of the dose released in hadrontherapy is of the order of few millimeters that can be larger than the dimension of the peak of the dose release (Bragg Peak). A precise monitoring of the dose is then essential for a good quality control of the treatment. Furthermore, the dose monitoring would be particularly useful if provided during the treatment (in-beam monitoring) in order to provide a fast feedback to the beam.

Several methods have been developed to determine the Bragg Peak position online by exploiting the secondary particle production induced by the hadron beam. They exploit the fact that the irradiation of tissues with hadron beams produces nuclear excitations followed by the emission of photons, positrons or charged fragments within few ns.

Our group studies the emission of such radiation in terms of rates and of spectra, with the aim of determining the requirements of the detectors needed for the dose profiling and of tuning the Monte Carlo simulations. We are therefore performing a measurement campaign with several types of beams and a wide spectrum of energies.

Futhermore, we have designed and are constructing a profiler capable to simultaneously measure prompt photons and charged particles with the accuracy required in a hadrotherapic treatment.



Who: F. Bellini, F. Collamati, P.M. Frallicciardi, E. De Lucia, R. Faccini, M. Marafini, I. Mattei, V. Patera, L. Piersanti, A. Sarti, A. Sciubba, C. Voena



  • Fluka group in Milano and CERN
  • GSI
  • HIT
  • Politecnico di Milano
  • Univ. di Pisa



  • L. Piersanti et al, “Measurement of charged particle yields from PMMA irradiated by a 220 MeV/u 12C beam”, Phys. Med. Biol. 59 (2014) 1857-1872.
  • F. Bellini et al, “Extended calibration range for prompt photon emission in ion beam irradiation”, Nucl. Inst. Meth. in Phys. Res. A 745C (2014), 114-118
  • C. Agodi et al, “Charged particle’s flux measurement from PMMA irradiated by 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam”, Physics in Medicine, Biology, vol. 57 n. 18, 2012. [Download]
  • C. Agodi et al, “Study of the time, space distribution of β+ emitters from 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam irradiation on PMMA”, Nucl. Inst., Meth. in Phys. Res. Section B, Beam Interaction with Materials, Atoms, vol. 283 n. 0, 2012.
  • C. Agodi et al, “Precise measurement of prompt photon emission from 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam irradiation”, Journal of Instrumentation, vol. 7, P03001, 2012. [Download]



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