Introduction to the course
 Course description, program, recommended textbooks.
Overview of measuring devices and techniques treated in the course. Bibliography and practical notes.
(notes).

Vector Network Analyzer (VNA)
 VNA introduction: block diagram. Generation section. Test and detecting section. Mixer and superheterodyne detector.
Vector network analyzer: accuracy and calibration techniques.
VNA calibration and uncertainty. VNA calibration: systematic errors. 6,8,12 parameters error models.
Calibration techniques SOLT, TRL.
Notes on: Network analyzer, Calibration, Group delay, electrical delay and phase offset, Automatic measurements of Q, Front panel of instruments. Extra material: 1) Notes on fundamentals of VNA measurements and VNA architecture. 2) Notes on VNA measure accuracy. 3) Manual HP8753: "Measurement Calibration" (da 657 a 682) and "Optimising Measurement Results" (from 51 to 589). 4) AN Agilent on mobile network analyzer FieldFox; 5) Information gathering on measurements with VNA (tesxt with links, web page); 
Spectrum Analyzer (SPA)
 Spectrum analyzer introduction: main uses and block diagram, structure and functioning.
Spectrum analyzer parameters. Nonlinear systems parameters and their SPA measurements.
VCO parameters and their SPA measurements.
(notes on strucure and
sui measurements parameters).
Extra material: DANL for Spectrum Analyzer. Fundamentals of Spectrum Analysis. 
Uncertainty Theory

Uncertainty theory and uncertainty propagation. Linear fit and uncertainty
(Notes on uncertainty and
linear interpolation).

Transmission lines theory
 Transmission lines, primary and secondary constants.
Coaxial cable and transmission lines model. Attenuation, Impedance and Reflection Coefficient.
Coaxial line closed on a load.
(notes).
Extra material: 1) Demo on Freqeuncy use, trasnmission lines and mismatch. 2) Coaxial line parameters; 
Scattering matrix theory
 Scattering matrix definition and properties. Scattering matrix of simple components (notes, S matrix computation, coaxial cable, S matrix of lumped elements, Mathematica Notebook on Measurements on coaxial cables ). 
Resonant cavities theory  External characterization of resonant cavities, effect of perturbations of cavity’s form,
tuning of cavities and field measurements in resonant structures.
Circuital models of measurements transmission and S21 of resonators
(class presentation,
field in cavity and overview of DUT
).
Extra material: 1) Lecture on RF basics. 2) Lecture on Power coupling in cavities. 3) Proof of Slater’s theorem. 4) Parameters of a cavity. 5) Notebook on cavity model;. 
Time Domain Reflectometry theory  Introduction to Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). Principles of TDR. TDR with synthetic impulse.
TDR main practical issues with synthetic impulse. Lab sessions comments.
(
class presentation,
notes for TDR with lumped elements).
Extra material: 1) AN Agilent on TDR introduction; 2) AN Agilent on TDR for microstrip measurements; 3) AN Agilent on TDR with network analyzer ; 4) AN Rhode on TDR with network analyzer; 5) Notes on FFT fenestration; 6) Comparison between TDR with real impulse and with synthetic impulse. 7) Notes on time domain techniques. 9) Keysight Presentation on TDR and transmission lines; 10) Keysight Presentation on TDR and mobile VNA; 11) Agilent Presentation on TDR, S parameters and differential measurements; 12) Gore Presentation on uncertainty on TDR measurements; 13) AN Agilent on TDR measurements with FieldFox analyzer; 
Elementary signals theory

Square wave and its transform. StepRecovery diodes. Modulated signals and their measure.
(notes)

Field and Qloaded measurements with SPA
 Narrowband field measurements.
(notes).

Routines Matlab

Useful Matlab command for measured data elaboration (notes).
Training Matlab for Sapienza students (MATLAB Academy) Material on Matlab basic commands (prof.ssa A. Pascarella). Routines list (zip file): 1) DataAquisition7; 2) FourierPlay; 3) LinearFit; 4) PlotFormattedData; 5) PlotSmithChart; 6) PlotSmithChartResistor; 6) ReflectionFitResonance; 7) regression3. In addition, Routines are necessary for ReflectionFitResonance (to insert in Matlab path). 
Practice 01 Measurements on coaxial cable (VNA) 
Calibration and calibration test. Transmission measurement of delay of the coaxial cable.
Attenuation measurement of a coaxial cable.
Reflection measurement of delay of the coaxial cable.
(calibration,
text).
Extra material: 1) Example of measurements: coaxial cable; 2) MATLAB routine for linear fit. 3) Observations on linearization; 4) Observations on interpolation. 
Practice 02 Measurements on elementary signals (SPA)  Introduction to spectrum analyzer measurements. Measure of a sinusoidal signal from a synthesizer.
Signal spectrum visualization with elementary waveform (square wave, triangular wave etc.).
Measure of an amplitude modulated signal with a sinusoidal signal (time domain visualization and frequency domain visualization; depth measure of modulation).
(text).
Extra material: 1) material on spectrum analyzer and evaluation of measure uncertainty; 2) MATLAB routine for computing Fourier trasnform of known signlas; 3) Synthesizer manual. 
Practice 03 Measurements on lumped elements (VNA)  Impedance/admittance measurements with vector network analyzer both in transmission and in reflection.
Measure of S parameters of lumped elements circuits. Characterization of elementary and real components (capacitors, inductors and resistors).
(text).
Extra material: 1) MATLAB routine for linear fit; 2) MATLAB routine for using Smith chart. 3) Capacitor with parasites elements: MATLAB routine for Smith chart, example. 
Practice 04 Measurements on twoport networks (VNA) 
Measure of bandpass filters. Measurements on T and power dividers. Characterization of directional couplers.
Power sweep with vector network analyzer. Measurements on waveguide components in X band.
(text).
Extra material: 1) Notes on directional couplers 2) Data sheet of amplifier minicircuits. 3) Amplifier parameters: Application Note. 
Practice 05 Measurements on reflection resonators (VNA) 
Reflection characterization of RF cavities: measurements of resonance frequency, coupling factor and quality factor.
Identification of cylindrical cavity modes. Characterization of dominant mode and higherorder modes.
(text)
Extra material: 1) Routines for PNA data reading zip file; 2) Characterization of reflection cavities; 3) Examples of reflection measurements of cavities . 
Practice 06 Measurements on transmission resonators (VNA) 
Characterization of transmission resonant cavities (pillbox, multiplecell cavity and coaxial cavities).
Cavity tuning. Field measurements on resonant structures.
(text)

Practice 07 Measurements of Time Domain Reflectometry (VNA) 
Practical cases application of time domain measurements with VNA. Choice of device settings.
Fault location measurements in coaxial structures. Characterization of microstrip. Gating functions.
(text).
Extra material: 1) Measurements setting in TDR. 
Practice 08 Measurements on complex signals (SPA) 
Spectrum measurement with uncertainty. Step recovery diode and frequency multiplication.
Spectrum of a frequency modulated signal with and without overlapped amplitude modulation.
Narrowband EM field measurement.
(text).

Open Lab 
Advanced measurements on PNA and FieldFox.

Individual tests A.A. 201415 
January 23, 2015,
January 2930, 2015,

Individual tests A.A. 201516 
December, 2015.
January 22, 2016,
January 25, 2016,
January 29, 2016,
February 1723, 2016,

Individual tests A.A. 201617 
January 12, 2017,
January 1920, 2017,
January 2627, 2017,
February 2, 2017.
February 9, 2017.

Individual tests A.A. 201718 
January 1719, 2018.
January 24, 2018.
January 31, 2018.
February 8,2018.
February 21, 2018.
March 2, 2018.

Individual tests A.A. 201819 
January 25, 2019.
January 31, 2019.
February 07, 2019.
February 18, 2019.
February 22, 2019.
March 6, 2019.
March 7, 2019.
March 15, 2019.

Last update on October, 7 2020, A.M.